Page 68-9: "At the 2003 Tour de France the team doctor Dr. del Moral gave Hincapie and Floyd Landis a small syringe of olive oil into which was dissolved a form of testosterone known as Andriol two out of every three nights during the Tour.
Page 136, Footnote 771: 'Johan Bruyneel told Floyd Landis that testosterone patches could “be worn two out of three days after hard training for eight to ten hours at night, which would be relatively free of risk of detection.”'
Page 138: "...the riders knew that if they used EPO in the evening and avoided testers during the night (when testers rarely if ever came) they would not test positive by morning."
Page 138, Footnote 786: Tom Danielson told the USADA that "In 2006 Dr. Ferrari told me about a recipe for mixing small testosterone balls known as Andriol in olive oil. I was instructed to place the mixture in a container and extract 1 ml with a syringe and squirt the liquid under my tongue. This was supposed to be done at night, and I was told that by morning I would not test positive. This product was known as the ‘oil,” and I would get it as needed from Pepe Marti."
So, the evidence gathered by the USADA reveals that doping at night was considered the ideal time both in-competition and out-of-competition. However, in tennis, the ITF only conducts post-match doping controls for in-competition testing. No off-day testing is conducted at Grand Slam events.
As for out-of-competition testing, Stuart Miller, the head of the tennis anti-doping program, has this to say: "I would say as a rule there’s not much testing that goes on between 11 at night and 6 in the morning. If you had credible information that players were using that time for doping – and it would have to be credible information – then there is nothing to stop you from going and trying to collect samples at that time. I believe that those are few and far between."
Based on this information, how much nighttime doping do you think is taking place on the ATP and WTA tours? Would anyone be surprised if it was rampant?
And what of Dr. Luis Garcia del Moral? I'll just use one quote:
Page 108: "One of [Johan] Bruyneel’s first acts was to replace Dr. Celaya, the U.S. Postal team physician in 1997 and 1998, with Dr. Luis Garcia del Moral who had provided services to the ONCE team. At the end of the 1998 season Lance had complained to Jonathan Vaughters that Celaya was too conservative in the way he dispensed doping products. Armstrong’s comment about Dr. Celaya was along the lines of, the team “might as well race clean, he wants to take your temperature to give you even a caffeine pill.” “Dr. del Moral was far more aggressive than Dr. Celaya in providing doping products to riders.”So, Dr. Luis Garcia del Moral was brought in because he was more liberal in providing doping products to riders. And, as we know, Dr. del Moral worked with various tennis players and had other affiliations in tennis (see "The Social Network" post). What investigation has the ITF conducted to ensure that no tennis players were provided doping products by Dr. del Moral? Given the USADA report, is it credible to assume that tennis players sought him out for legitimate medical care?
Last quote for tonight, page 137 of the decision states "Dr. Ferrari advised the use of hypoxic chambers to reduce the effectiveness of the EPO test in detecting the use of synthetic EPO."
How many tennis players are using such chambers (e.g., an altitude tent)?
Page 117 of the USADA decision states "Dr. del Moral would authorize cortisone for the riders for fictitious injuries." Given this information, has the ITF, at any time, granted a therapeutic use exemption to a player based on a medical diagnosis provided by Dr. del Moral?
Offered without comment:
Sara Errani: "He [Dr. Luis Garcia del Moral] was the best doctor in Valencia for everything."
ITF: "Dr Garcia del Moral practices sports medicine in Valencia, Spain, and in that capacity has worked in the past with various tennis players."
P. 28: "Pepe Marti and Dr. del Moral were the riders’ principal sources of EPO and testosterone."
P. 33: 'Pepe or Dr. del Moral would bring the EPO to the riders either in their camper or hotel room. The EPO was already loaded in syringes upon delivery and the riders “would inject quickly and then put the syringes in a bag or Coke can and Dr. del Moral would get the syringe out of the camper as quickly as possible.”'
P. 38: "The blood extraction was to be performed in Valencia, Spain, the hometown of Dr. del Moral and Pepe Marti."
P. 111: "Ferrari and del Moral supervised the blood extraction process. Marti and del Moral would be responsible for re-infusing the blood during the Tour."
P. 115: 'Christian Vande Velde recalled Dr. del Moral as “gruff, aggressive and always seemed in a hurry.” Vande Velde said, del Moral “would run into the room and you would quickly find a needle in your arm."'
P. 116: 'Jonathan Vaughters explained that Dr. del Moral was “far more aggressive than Dr. Celaya in providing doping products to riders” and in 1999 “came into the early season training camp in Solvang, California, with an Excel spreadsheet, on which, after meeting with each rider and discussing their schedule, he had developed a doping plan, and he would tell us, ‘this is when you use growth hormone, this is when to start EPO.”'